CPC Blend is a light crude oil which was first introduced to the market at the end of 2001 with the commissioning of a 1,580km pipeline by the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC). The CPC Pipeline links major oil fields in Western Kazakhstan to a Black Sea export terminal opened in 2001 at Yuzhnaya Ozerreyevka, located 40km North-West of Novorossiysk in Russia. Since the inception of the CPC Pipeline, most of TCO’s production has been exported via this route. Initially, Tengiz was the only grade in the line, but over time other grades have been injected to where Tengiz now represents approximately 60% of the blend.

Pure Tengiz has been available on the market since 2007 as a result of two major initiatives, Sour Gas Injection and Second Generation Project, which had the combined effect of doubling production from 300 MBD to 600 MBD.

Loading and Transportation

CPC Blend

The CPC Pipeline runs from Tengiz to a purpose built terminal at Yuzhnaya Ozerreyevka near Novorossiysk. There are injection points at Atyrau, Kazakhstan and also Kropotkin in Russia where other crude oil grades are added to the blend. The terminal has two Single Point Moorings (SPMs), where vessels are loaded at a water depth of 54-56 metres. Crude oil is pumped to the SPMs from a tank farm located 238m above sea level and 9km inland. CPC Blend is loaded onto Suezmax (120,000-145,000 DWT) and Aframax (80,000-90,000 DWT) vessels. Implementation of strict vessel vetting procedures, use of double hull tankers, and deep water loading set high safety standards.

Tengiz

Taman-Tengiz crude Oil, loaded onto railcars is transported across Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine Black Sea Port to be delivered into dedicated tankers in Taman. At Taman Aframax cargoes will be loaded, although smaller cargoes can be accommodated.

Refining Characteristics

Naphtha

Both grades have a high Naphtha yield which can contribute significantly as a blend stock in the gasoline pool after treatment. The Naphtha is suitable for reforming.

Jet/Kerosene

Both grades have a high Jet/Kerosene yield. The smoke point and freeze point meets Jet/Kerosene specification, however treatment is required to reduce mercaptan levels. CPC requires less treatment than Tengiz.

Diesel

High cetane, low density distillates are produced from both CPC blend and Tengiz with excellent cold flow properties.

Vacuum Gas Oil

Low metals and low nitrogen make the Vacuum Gas Oil an attractive feed for catalytic crackers and/or hydrocrackers.

Atmospheric Residuum

The Atmospheric Residuum has low MCRT, asphaltines, metals and nitrogen allowing significant upgrading potential in direct feed to catalytic crackers.

Vacuum Residuum

Both grades have a low yield with Tengiz having an exceptionally low yield. This is attractive to refiners looking to minimize the fuel oil stream. Tengiz Vacuum Residuum also has a very low viscosity which significantly reduces cutter requirements.

Processing Simplified

Chevron has extensive knowledge in the area of refining light high mercaptan crude oil. As the operator and largest partner of Tengizchevroil (TCO), Chevron provides technical expertise in support of the TCO crude marketing effort. This can take the form of technical consultations with TCO customers on processing CPC Blend crude oil and Tengiz crude oil. This assistance can be provided on site if requested.